Cyclamate is not found in natural substances, it is an artificial sweetener, obtained by chemical synthesis.
Under the name "cyclamate", the code E952 in the list of food additives approved for use in the European Union combines three chemical compounds: cyclamic acid and its salts - sodium cyclamate (the main one on the market) and calcium cyclamate. Among the intensive sweeteners used, sodium cyclamate is one of the oldest. It was opened in 1937, 50 years after the saccharine.
Production of sodium cyclamate
Cyclamate of sodium is produced by the sulfonation reaction of cyclohexylamine (see Fig.)
The patent protection period has expired, as a result of which the PRC is intensively developing the industrial synthesis of cyclamates.
Cyclamates in the world market
The total volume of sales in the world market of intensive sweeteners is 1.2 billion US dollars (2012). Cyclamates divide with saccharin the third-fourth place in this segment (12% each), after sucralose (34%) and aspartame (26%). Cyclamates are most popular in the countries of the Far Eastern region.
Source: Credit Suisse
Sweet taste of sodium cyclamate
Sodium cyclamate, like other cyclamates, is the least sweet of the intensive sweeteners used: it is only 40 times sweeter than sugar.
In comparison with other sweeteners, sodium cyclamate has the best taste, that is, most like sugar; However, experienced tasters have a slight aftertaste. For this reason, this compound is often used in mixtures with other sweeteners; the best taste qualities are achieved in the mixtures cyclamate-saccharin with respect to 10: 1. In mixtures with other sweeteners, sodium cyclamate works well as a masking agent and shows a synergistic effect: the sweetness of the mixtures is higher than the sum of the sweetness of individual sweeteners.
Cyclamates do not have a smell.
Advantages of cyclamates
Glycemic index = 0;
Energy value = 0;
Does not promote the development of caries;
Possible use in diets for diabetics;
One of the cheapest sweeteners: the cost of sodium cyclamate is 6% of the cost of sugar in comparable quantities for sweets.
Application of sodium cyclamate
This sweetener finds application as well as all other sugar substitutes with zero energy value. It is thermally stable, non-caramelized, has a long shelf life, which is suitable for both home cooking and the food industry.
As a result of laboratory tests on rodents in the 1960s, suspicions arose that cyclamates could contribute to the development of tumor diseases. As a result, in 1969, it was banned for use in foods in the United States; to date, the ban continues to operate.
However, cyclamates are approved for use in more than 50 countries, including the European Union, Canada, Australia and Russia. In the European Union, the permissible level of daily intake of cyclamate is set at 11 mg per kg of body weight.
Additional materials about cyclamate